Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)
This flatly-built, short-tailed lizard is brown or tan in coloration. Darker dorsal blotches (often with light borders) and a lighter middorsal stripe are present. It is covered in spines, with the most prominent spines on the back of the head. There is also a double row of spines along the fringes of the abdomen.
This species is also known--erroneously--as a Horny Toad or Horned Toad.
This is a species of desert habitats. Dry, exposed, sandy areas provide suitable living conditions.
This species is most likely to be seen as it basks or forages around ant colonies.
Breeding extends from spring to summer, with females laying multiple clutches of eggs per year. No brooding of the eggs is observed.
This species is an ant specialist, feeding primarily on harvester ants. After a good bask to warm in the sun, it will dart along in short bursts gulping down ants as they pass by.
This species is faster than one might imagine and will dart away quickly from danger. It is also well camouflaged and may even bury into sandy soil. If captured, one is likely to puff up with air, erecting the spines. As a unique defensive mechanism, this species can squirt blood from its eye ducts. The blood contains a chemical that tastes bad to would-be predators.
This species is likely extirpated in Arkansas. The last confirmed population was located near Fort Smith in the early 1970's (Trauth et. al. 2004). It is a species considered rare by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission and has been identified as a species of greatest conservation need by the Wildlife Conservation Strategy group. It is protected from international trade by CITES Appendix II. It was once an extremely popular lizard of the pet trade and evidence suggests that populations in Arkansas may have been established from illegitimately released stock. Whether or not naturally-occurring populations ever existed in Arkansas is an issue of debate. What is clear, however, is that populations have shown a marked decline in some areas of its former range. The causes of such declines aren't completely understood, but some proposed reasons include changes in land use, overcollection, the overuse of pesticides killing prey-species ants, and the spread of non-native fire ants out-competing native ants.
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